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The default and recommended way to write laminas-mvc applications uses a set of
services defined in the
Laminas\Mvc\Service namespace. This chapter details what
each of those services are, the classes they represent, and the configuration
Many of the services are provided by other components, and the factories and abstract factories themselves are defined in the individual components. We will cover those factories in this chapter, however, as usage is generally the same between each.
Theory of Operation
To allow easy configuration of all the different parts of the MVC system, a somewhat complex set of services and their factories has been created. We'll try to give a simplified explanation of the process.
Laminas\Mvc\Application is created, a
object is created and configured via
ServiceManagerConfig gets the configuration from
config/application.config.php (or some other application configuration you
passed to the
Application when creating it). From all the service and
factories provided in the
is responsible of configuring only three:
After this, the
Application fetches the
ModuleManager. At this point, the
ModuleManager further configures the
ServiceManager with services and
factories provided in
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ServiceListenerFactory. This approach
allows us to keep the main application configuration concise, and to give the
developer the power to configure different parts of the MVC system from within
the modules, overriding any default configuration in these MVC services.
As a quick review, the following service types may be configured:
- Invokable services, which map a service name to a class that has no constructor or a constructor that accepts no arguments.
- Factories, which map a service name to a factory which will create and
return an object. A factory receives the service manager as an argument, and
may be any PHP callable, or a class or object that implements
- Abstract factories, which are factories that can create any number of
named services that share the same instantiation pattern; examples include
database adapters, cache adapters, loggers, etc. The factory receives the
service manager as an argument, the resolved service name, and the requested
service name; it must be a class or object implementing
Laminas\ServiceManager\AbstractFactoryInterface. See the section on abstract factories for configuration information.
- Aliases, which alias one service name to another. Aliases can also reference other aliases.
- Initializers, which receive the newly created instance and the service manager, and which can be used to perform additional initialization tasks. The most common use case is to test the instance against specific "Aware" interfaces, and, if matching, inject them with the appropriate service.
- Delegators, which typically decorate retrieval of a service to either substitute an alternate service, decorate the created service, or perform pre/post initialization tasks when creating a service.
- Lazy services, which are decorators for services with expensive initialization; the service manager essentially returns a proxy service that defers initialization until the first call is made to the service.
- Plugin managers, which are specialized service managers used to manage
objects that are of a related type, such as view helpers, controller plugins,
controllers, etc. Plugin managers accept configuration just like service
managers, and as such can compose each of the service types listed above.
They are also
ServiceLocatorAware, and will be injected with the application service manager instance, giving factories and abstract factories access to application-level services when needed. See the heading Plugin managers for a list of available plugin managers.
The application service manager is referenced directly during bootstrapping, and has the following services configured out of the box.
DispatchListener, mapping to
RouteListener, mapping to
SendResponseListener, mapping to
SharedEventManager, mapping to
Application, mapping to
Config, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ConfigFactory. Internally, this pulls the
ModuleManagerservice, calls its
loadModules()method, and retrieves the merged configuration from the module event. As such, this service contains the entire, merged application configuration.
ControllerManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ControllerLoaderFactory. This creates an instance of
Laminas\Mvc\Controller\ControllerManager, passing the service manager instance. Additionally, it uses the
DiStrictAbstractServiceFactoryservice, effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve your controllers. If you want to use
Laminas\Dito retrieve your controllers, you must white-list them in your DI configuration under the
allowed_controllerskey (otherwise, they will just be ignored). The
ControllerManagerprovides initializers for the following:
If the controller implements
Laminas\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorAwareInterface(or the methods it defines), an instance of the
ServiceManagerwill be injected into it.
If the controller implements
Laminas\EventManager\EventManagerAwareInterface, an instance of the
EventManagerwill be injected into it.
Finally, an initializer will inject it with the
ControllerPluginManagerservice, as long as the
setPluginManagermethod is implemented.
ControllerPluginManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ControllerPluginManagerFactory. This instantiates the
Laminas\Mvc\Controller\PluginManagerinstance, passing it the service manager instance. It also uses the
DiAbstractServiceFactoryservice, effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve your controller plugins. It registers a set of default controller plugins, and contains an initializer for injecting plugins with the current controller.
ConsoleAdapter, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ConsoleAdapterFactory. This grabs the
Configservice, pulls from the
consolekey, and do the following:
adaptersubkey is present, it is used to get the adapter instance, otherwise,
Laminas\Console\Console::detectBestAdapter()will be called to configure an adapter instance.
charsetsubkey is present, the value is used to set the adapter charset.
ConsoleRouter, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Console\Router\ConsoleRouterFactory. This grabs the
Configservice, and pulls from the
routersubkey, configuring a
ConsoleViewManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ConsoleViewManagerFactory. This creates and returns an instance of
Laminas\Mvc\View\Console\ViewManager, which in turn registers and initializes a number of console-specific view services.
DependencyInjector, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\DiFactory. This pulls the
Configservice, and looks for a "di" key; if found, that value is used to configure a new
DiAbstractServiceFactory, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\DiAbstractServiceFactoryFactory. This creates an instance of
Diservice instance. That instance is attached to the service manager as an abstract factory, effectively enabling DI as a fallback for providing services.
DiServiceInitializer, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\DiServiceInitializerFactory. This creates an instance of
Diservice and the service manager itself.
DiStrictAbstractServiceFactory, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\DiStrictAbstractServiceFactoryFactory. This creates an instance of
Laminas\Mvc\Service\DiStrictAbstractServiceFactoryFactory, injecting the
EventManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\EventManagerFactory. This factory returns a discrete instance of
Laminas\EventManager\EventManageron each request. This service is not shared by default, allowing the ability to have an
EventManagerper service, with a shared
SharedEventManagerinjected in each.
FilterManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\FilterManagerFactory. This instantiates the
Laminas\Filter\FilterPluginManagerinstance, passing it the service manager instance; this is used to manage filters for filter chains. It also uses the
DiAbstractServiceFactoryservice, effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve filters.
FormElementManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\FormElementManagerFactory. This instantiates the
Laminas\Form\FormElementManagerinstance, passing it the service manager instance; this is used to manage form elements. It also uses the
DiAbstractServiceFactoryservice, effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve form elements.
HttpRouter, mapping to
Laminas\Router\Http\HttpRouterFactory. This grabs the
Configservice, and pulls from the
routerkey, configuring a
HttpViewManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\HttpViewManagerFactory. This creates and returns an instance of
Laminas\Mvc\View\Http\ViewManager, which in turn registers and initializes a number of HTTP-specific view services.
HydratorManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\HydratorManagerFactory. This creates and returns an instance of
Laminas\Stdlib\Hydrator\HydratorPluginManager, which can be used to manage and persist hydrator instances.
InputFilterManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\InputFilterManagerFactory. This creates and returns an instance of
Laminas\InputFilter\InputFilterPluginManager, which can be used to manage and persist input filter instances.
ModuleManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ModuleManagerFactory. This is perhaps the most complex factory in the MVC stack. It expects that an
ApplicationConfigservice has been injected, with keys for
modules; see the quick start for samples. It creates an instance of
Laminas\ModuleManager\Listener\DefaultListenerAggregate, using the
module_listener_optionsretrieved. It then checks if a service with the name
ServiceListenerexists; if not, it sets a factory with that name mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ServiceListenerFactory. A bunch of service listeners will be added to the
ServiceListener, like listeners for the
getViewHelperConfigmodule methods. Next, it retrieves the
EventManagerservice, and attaches the above listeners. It instantiates a
Laminas\ModuleManager\ModuleEventinstance, setting the "ServiceManager" parameter to the service manager object. Finally, it instantiates a
Laminas\ModuleManager\ModuleManagerinstance, and injects the
MvcTranslator, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\TranslatorServiceFactory, and returning an instance of
Laminas\Mvc\I18n\Translator, which extends
Laminas\Validator\Translator\TranslatorInterface, allowing the instance to be used anywhere a translator may be required in the framework.
PaginatorPluginManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\PaginatorPluginManagerFactory. This instantiates the
Laminas\Paginator\AdapterPluginManagerinstance, passing it the service manager instance. This is used to manage paginator adapters. It also uses the
DiAbstractServiceFactoryservice, effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve paginator adapters.
Request, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\RequestFactory. The factory is used to create and return a request instance, according to the current environment. If the current environment is a console environment, it will create a
Laminas\Console\Request; otherwise, for HTTP environments, it creates a
Response, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ResponseFactory. The factory is used to create and return a response instance, according to the current environment. If the current environment is a console environment, it will create a
Laminas\Console\Response; otherwise, for HTTP environments, it creates a
Router, mapping to
Laminas\Router\RouterFactory. If in a console environment, it proxies to the
ConsoleRouterservice; otherwise, it proxies to the
RoutePluginManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\RoutePluginManagerFactory. This instantiates the
Laminas\Router\RoutePluginManagerinstance, passing it the service manager instance; this is used to manage route types. It also uses the
DiAbstractServiceFactoryservice, effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve route types.
SerializerAdapterManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\SerializerAdapterPluginManagerFactory, which returns an instance of
Laminas\Serializer\AdapterPluginManager. This is a plugin manager for managing serializer adapter instances.
ServiceListener, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ServiceListenerFactory. The factory is used to instantiate the
ServiceListener, while allowing easy extending. It checks if a service with the name
ServiceListenerInterfaceexists, which must implement
Laminas\ModuleManager\Listener\ServiceListenerInterface, before instantiating the default
ServiceListener. In addition to this, it retrieves the
ApplicationConfigand looks for the
service_listener_optionskey. This allows you to register own listeners for module methods and configuration keys to create an own service manager; see the application configuration options for samples.
ValidatorManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ValidatorManagerFactory. This instantiates the
Laminas\Validator\ValidatorPluginManagerinstance, passing it the service manager instance. This is used to manage validators. It also uses the
DiAbstractServiceFactoryservice, effectively allowing you to fall back to DI in order to retrieve validators.
ViewFeedRenderer, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ViewFeedRendererFactory, which returns an instance of
Laminas\View\Renderer\FeedRenderer, used to render feeds.
ViewFeedStrategy, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ViewFeedStrategyFactory, which returns an instance of
Laminas\View\Strategy\FeedStrategy, used to select the
ViewFeedRenderergiven the appropriate criteria.
ViewHelperManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ViewHelperManagerFactory, which returns an instance of
Laminas\View\HelperManager. This is a plugin manager for managing view helper instances.
ViewJsonRenderer, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ViewJsonRendererFactory, which returns an instance of
Laminas\View\Renderer\JsonRenderer, used to render JSON structures.
ViewJsonStrategy, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ViewJsonStrategyFactory, which returns an instance of
Laminas\View\Strategy\JsonStrategy, used to select the
ViewJsonRenderergiven the appropriate criteria.
ViewManager, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ViewManagerFactory. The factory is used to create and return a view manager, according to the current environment. If the current environment is a console environment, it will create a
Laminas\Mvc\View\Console\ViewManager; otherwise, for HTTP environments, it returns a
ViewResolver, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ViewResolverFactory, which creates and returns the aggregate view resolver. It also attaches the
ViewTemplatePathStackservices to it.
ViewTemplateMapResolver, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ViewTemplateMapResolverFactory, which creates, configures and returns the
ViewTemplatePathStack, mapping to
Laminas\Mvc\Service\ViewTemplatePathStackFactory, which creates, configures and returns the
Laminas\Cache\Service\StorageCacheAbstractServiceFactory(opt-in; registered by default in the skeleton application).
Laminas\Form\FormAbstractServiceFactoryis registered by default.
Laminas\Log\LoggerAbstractServiceFactory(opt-in; registered by default in the skeleton application).
Configuration, mapping to the
Console, mapping to the
Di, mapping to the
MiddlewareListener, mapping to the
Laminas\Di\LocatorInterface, mapping to the
Laminas\EventManager\EventManagerInterface, mapping to the
EventManagerservice. This is mainly to ensure that when falling through to DI, classes are still injected via the
Laminas\Mvc\Controller\PluginManager, mapping to the
ControllerPluginManagerservice. This is mainly to ensure that when falling through to DI, classes are still injected via the
Laminas\View\Resolver\TemplateMapResolver, mapping to the
Laminas\View\Resolver\TemplatePathStack, mapping to the
Laminas\View\Resolver\AggregateResolver, mapping to the
Laminas\View\Resolver\ResolverInterface, mapping to the
For objects that implement
EventManagerservice will be retrieved and injected. This service is not shared, though each instance it creates is injected with a shared instance of
For objects that implement
Laminas\ServiceManager\ServiceLocatorAwareInterface(or the methods it defines), the
ServiceManagerwill inject itself into the object.
ServiceManagerregisters itself as the
ServiceManagerservice, and aliases itself to the class names
As noted in the previous section, Laminas provides a number of abstract service factories by default. Each is noted below, along with sample configuration.
In each instance, the abstract factory looks for a top-level configuration key, consisting of key/value pairs where the key is the service name, and the value is the configuration to use to create the given service.
This abstract factory is opt-in, but registered by default in the skeleton application. It uses the top-level configuration key "caches".
return [ 'caches' => [ 'Cache\Transient' => [ 'adapter' => 'redis', 'ttl' => 60, 'plugins' => [ 'exception_handler' => [ 'throw_exceptions' => false, ], ], ], 'Cache\Persistence' => [ 'adapter' => 'filesystem', 'ttl' => 86400, ], ], ];
See the cache documentation for more configuration options.
This abstract factory is opt-in. It uses the top-level configuration key "db", with a subkey "adapters".
return [ 'db' => ['adapters' => [ 'Db\ReadOnly' => [ 'driver' => 'Pdo_Sqlite', 'database' => 'data/db/users.db', ], 'Db\Writeable' => [ 'driver' => 'Mysqli', 'database' => 'users', 'username' => 'developer', 'password' => 'developer_password', ], ]], ];
See the DB adapter documentation for more configuration options.
This abstract factory is registered by default. It uses the top-level
configuration key "forms". It makes use of the
ValidatorManager plugin managers in order to allow instantiation and creation
of form objects and all related objects in the form hierarchy.
return [ 'forms' => [ 'Form\Foo' => [ 'hydrator' => 'ObjectProperty', 'type' => 'Laminas\Form\Form', 'elements' => [ [ 'spec' => [ 'type' => 'Laminas\Form\Element\Email', 'name' => 'email', 'options' => [ 'label' => 'Your email address', ], ], ], ], ], ], ];
Form configuration follows the same configuration you would use with a form factory; the primary difference is that all plugin managers have already been injected for you, allowing you the possibility of custom objects or substitutions.
See the form factory documentation for more configuration options.
This abstract factory is opt-in, but registered by default in the skeleton application. It uses the top-level configuration key "log".
return [ 'log' => [ 'Log\App' => [ 'writers' => [ [ 'name' => 'stream', 'priority' => 1000, 'options' => [ 'stream' => 'data/logs/app.log', ], ], ], ], ], ];
See the log documentation for more configuration options.
The following plugin managers are configured by default:
- ControllerManager, corresponding to
Laminas\Mvc\Controller\ControllerManager, and used to manage controller instances.
- ControllerPluginManager, corresponding to
Laminas\Mvc\Controller\PluginManager, and used to manage controller plugin instances.
- FilterManager, corresponding to
Laminas\Filter\FilterPluginManager, and used to manage filter instances.
- FormElementManager, corresponding to
Laminas\Form\FormElementManager, and used to manage instances of form elements and fieldsets.
- HydratorManager, corresponding to
Laminas\Stdlib\Hydrator\HydratorPluginManager, and used to manage hydrator instances.
- InputFilterManager, corresponding to
Laminas\InputFilter\InputFilterPluginManager, and used to manage input filter instances.
- RoutePluginManager, corresponding to
Laminas\Router\RoutePluginManager, and used to manage route instances.
- SerializerAdapterManager, corresponding to
Laminas\Serializer\AdapterPluginManager, and used to manage serializer instances.
- ValidatorManager, corresponding to
Laminas\Validator\ValidatorPluginManager, and used to manage validator instances.
- ViewHelperManager, corresponding to
Laminas\View\HelperPluginManager, and used to manage view helper instances.
As noted in the previous section, all plugin managers share the same configuration and service types as the standard service manager; they are simply scoped, and only allow instances of certain types to be created or registered. Default types available are listed in the documentation for each component.
The View layer within laminas-mvc consists of a large number of collaborators and
event listeners. As such,
Laminas\Mvc\View\ViewManager was created to handle
creation of the various objects, as well as wiring them together and
establishing event listeners.
ViewManager itself is an event listener on the
bootstrap event. It
ServiceManager from the
Application object, as well as its
Configuration for all members of the
ViewManager fall under the
configuration key, and expect values as noted below. The following services are
created and managed by the
ViewHelperManager, representing and aliased to
Laminas\View\HelperPluginManager. It is seeded with the
ServiceManager. Created via the
Routerservice is retrieved, and injected into the
base_pathkey is present, it is used to inject the
BasePathview helper; otherwise, the
Requestservice is retrieved, and the value of its
getBasePath()method is used.
base_path_consolekey is present, it is used to inject the
BasePathview helper for console requests; otherwise, the
Requestservice is retrieved, and the value of its
getBasePath()method is used. This can be useful for sending urls in emails via a cronjob.
doctypekey is present, it will be used to set the value of the
ViewTemplateMapResolver, representing and aliased to
Laminas\View\Resolver\TemplateMapResolver. If a
template_mapkey is present, it will be used to seed the template map.
ViewTemplatePathStack, representing and aliased to
template_path_stackkey is present, it will be used to seed the stack.
default_template_suffixkey is present, it will be used as the default suffix for template scripts resolving.
ViewResolver, representing and aliased to
Laminas\View\Resolver\ResolverInterface. It is seeded with the
ViewTemplatePathStackservices as resolvers.
ViewRenderer, representing and aliased to
Laminas\View\Renderer\RendererInterface. It is seeded with the
ViewHelperManagerservices. Additionally, the
ViewModelhelper gets seeded with the
ViewModelas its root (layout) model.
ViewPhpRendererStrategy, representing and aliased to
Laminas\View\Strategy\PhpRendererStrategy. It gets seeded with the
View, representing and aliased to
Laminas\View\View. It gets seeded with the
EventManagerservice, and attaches the
ViewPhpRendererStrategyas an aggregate listener.
DefaultRenderingStrategy, representing and aliased to
Laminas\Mvc\View\DefaultRenderingStrategy. If the
layoutkey is present, it is used to seed the strategy's layout template. It is seeded with the
ExceptionStrategy, representing and aliased to
Laminas\Mvc\View\ExceptionStrategy. If the
exception_templatekeys are present, they are used to configure the strategy.
RouteNotFoundStrategy, representing and aliased to
404Strategy. If the
not_found_templatekeys are present, they are used to configure the strategy.
ViewModel. In this case, no service is registered; the
ViewModelis retrieved from the
MvcEventand injected with the layout template name.
ViewManager also creates several other listeners, but does not expose them
as services; these include
These, along with
DefaultRenderingStrategy are attached as listeners either to the application
EventManager instance or the
Finally, if you have a
strategies key in your configuration, the
will loop over these and attach them in order to the
View service as
listeners, at a priority of 100 (allowing them to execute before the
Application Configuration Options
The following options may be used to provide initial configuration for the
Application instances, allowing them to
then find and aggregate the configuration used for the
Config service, which
is intended for configuring all other objects in the system. These configuration
directives go to the
<?php return [ // This should be an array of module namespaces used in the application. 'modules' => [ ], // These are various options for the listeners attached to the ModuleManager 'module_listener_options' => [ // This should be an array of paths in which modules reside. // If a string key is provided, the listener will consider that a module // namespace, the value of that key the specific path to that module's // Module class. 'module_paths' => [ ], // An array of paths from which to glob configuration files after // modules are loaded. These effectively override configuration // provided by modules themselves. Paths may use GLOB_BRACE notation. 'config_glob_paths' => [ ], // Whether or not to enable a configuration cache. // If enabled, the merged configuration will be cached and used in // subsequent requests. 'config_cache_enabled' => $booleanValue, // The key used to create the configuration cache file name. 'config_cache_key' => $stringKey, // Whether or not to enable a module class map cache. // If enabled, creates a module class map cache which will be used // by in future requests, to reduce the autoloading process. 'module_map_cache_enabled' => $booleanValue, // The key used to create the class map cache file name. 'module_map_cache_key' => $stringKey, // The path in which to cache merged configuration. 'cache_dir' => $stringPath, // Whether or not to enable modules dependency checking. // Enabled by default, prevents usage of modules that depend on other modules // that weren't loaded. 'check_dependencies' => $booleanValue, ], // Used to create an own service manager. May contain one or more child arrays. 'service_listener_options' => [ [ 'service_manager' => $stringServiceManagerName, 'config_key' => $stringConfigKey, 'interface' => $stringOptionalInterface, 'method' => $stringRequiredMethodName, ], ] // Initial configuration with which to seed the ServiceManager. // Should be compatible with Laminas\ServiceManager\Config. 'service_manager' => [ ], ];
For an example, see the laminas-mvc-skeleton configuration file.
Default Configuration Options
The following options are available when using the default services configured
These configuration directives can go to the
files, or in the
module/<module name>/config/module.config.php configuration
files. The merging of these configuration files is done by the
It first merges each module's
module.config.php file, and then the files in
config/autoload (first the
*.global.php and then the
The order of the merge is relevant so you can override a module's configuration
with your application configuration. If you have both a
config/autoload/my.local.config.php, the local configuration file
overrides the global configuration.
Do not commit local configuration
Local configuration files are intended to keep sensitive information, such as database credentials, and as such, it is highly recommended to keep these local configuration files out of your VCS. The
*.local.phpfiles by default.
<?php return [ // The following are used to configure controller loader // Should be compatible with Laminas\ServiceManager\Config. 'controllers' => [ // Map of controller "name" to class // This should be used if you do not need to inject any dependencies // in your controller 'invokables' => [ ], // Map of controller "name" to factory for creating controller instance // You may provide either the class name of a factory, or a PHP callback. 'factories' => [ ], ], // The following are used to configure controller plugin loader // Should be compatible with Laminas\ServiceManager\Config. 'controller_plugins' => [ ], // The following are used to configure view helper manager // Should be compatible with Laminas\ServiceManager\Config. 'view_helpers' => [ ], // The following is used to configure a Laminas\Di\Di instance. // The array should be in a format that Laminas\Di\Config can understand. 'di' => [ ], // Configuration for the Router service // Can contain any router configuration, but typically will always define // the routes for the application. See the router documentation for details // on route configuration. 'router' => [ 'routes' => [ ], ], // ViewManager configuration 'view_manager' => [ // Base URL path to the application 'base_path' => $stringBasePath, // Doctype with which to seed the Doctype helper 'doctype' => $doctypeHelperConstantString, // e.g. HTML5, XHTML1 // TemplateMapResolver configuration // template/path pairs 'template_map' => [ ], // TemplatePathStack configuration // module/view script path pairs 'template_path_stack' => [ ], // Default suffix to use when resolving template scripts, if none, 'phtml' is used 'default_template_suffix' => $templateSuffix, // e.g. 'php' // Controller namespace to template map 'controller_map' => [ ], // Layout template name 'layout' => $layoutTemplateName, // e.g. 'layout/layout' // ExceptionStrategy configuration 'display_exceptions' => $bool, // display exceptions in template 'exception_template' => $stringTemplateName, // e.g. 'error' // RouteNotFoundStrategy configuration 'display_not_found_reason' => $bool, // display 404 reason in template 'not_found_template' => $stringTemplateName, // e.g. '404' // Additional strategies to attach // These should be class names or service names of View strategy classes // that act as ListenerAggregates. They will be attached at priority 100, // in the order registered. 'strategies' => [ 'ViewJsonStrategy', // register JSON renderer strategy 'ViewFeedStrategy', // register Feed renderer strategy ], ], ];
For an example, see the Application module configuration file in the laminas-mvc-skeleton.