View Helpers


The CountryCodeDataList view helper can be used to render an HTML <datalist> element containing a list of ISO-3166 country codes with two-letter country codes and localised country names.

Basic Usage

echo $this->countryCodeDataList();

By default, the helper will output a datalist with labels in the systems default locale such as:

<datalist >
    <option value="AD" label="Andorra">
    <option value="AE" label="United&#x20;Arab&#x20;Emirates">
    <option value="AF" label="Afghanistan">
    <option value="AG" label="Antigua&#x20;&amp;&#x20;Barbuda">
    <!-- …more items… -->

Customising Output

Override the Locale at Runtime

The first, optional argument to the helper is a locale string used to format the country names:

echo $this->countryCodeDataList('de_DE'); // or just 'DE'


    <option value="AD" label="Andorra">
    <option value="AE" label="Vereinigte&#x20;Arabische&#x20;Emirate">
    <option value="AF" label="Afghanistan">
    <option value="AG" label="Antigua&#x20;und&#x20;Barbuda">
    <!-- etc… -->

Set HTML Attributes on the Data List

You can provide HTML attributes to the second argument of the helper as an associative array.

echo $this->countryCodeDataList(null, [
    'id' => 'country-codes',
]); // or just 'DE'


<datalist id="country-codes">
    <option value="AD" label="Andorra">
    <!-- etc… -->

In order for the html data list to be used with a form input, you must target the list from the input using the list attribute. For example:

$formElement = new Laminas\Form\Element\Text('country');
$formElement->setAttribute('list', 'country-codes');

Restricting the List of Available Countries

The CountryCodeListInterface Contract

The helper's constructor accepts an object that implements Laminas\I18n\Geography\CountryCodeListInterface. This interface has no specific methods other than those it inherits from IteratorAggregate and Countable. This object must be an iterable that yields a list of Laminas\I18n\CountryCode value objects.

The default implementation of this interface, Laminas\I18n\Geography\DefaultCountryCodeList provides a list of all known ISO-3166 codes.

Overriding the List

Once you have an implementation of CountryCodeListInterface that provides the list of countries that you require, the list must be made available to the view helper.

This can be achieved in 2 ways:

1. A Custom Factory for the Helper

In order to inject the list into the helper, you can set up a factory that replaces the view helpers default factory.

Create a file for the factory e.g. module/MyModule/src/Factory/MyCountryDataListFactory.php with the following contents:

namespace MyNameSpace;

use Laminas\Escaper\Escaper;
use Laminas\I18n\View\Helper\CountryCodeDataList;
use Psr\Container\ContainerInterface;

class MyCountryDataListFactory
    public function __invoke(ContainerInterface $container): CountryCodeDataList
        return new CountryCodeDataList(
            new Escaper(),

You would then configure your application config to register this factory for the helper.

For example, in a laminas-mvc module, the file might be module/MyModule/config/module.config.php

return [
    'view_helpers' => [
        'factories' => [
            \Laminas\I18n\View\Helper\CountryCodeDataList::class => \MyNameSpace\MyCountryDataListFactory::class,

2. Override the List Itself in the DI Container

Assuming your customised list is available in the DI container with the alias MyCountryList, modify your application configuration so that the list interface is aliased to your own implementation:

Example configuration file path for a laminas-mvc module: module/MyModule/config/module.config.php

return [
     * 'service_manager' is the key used in a laminas-mvc application.
     * For a Mezzio application, the key would be 'dependencies' 
    'service_manager' => [
        'aliases' => [
            \Laminas\I18n\Geography\CountryCodeListInterface::class => 'MyCountryList',

In the above scenario, the shipped factory for the view helper will inject your implementation of the country list into the view helper's constructor.